Monthly Archives: April 2021

Smelting non-ferrous metals: soil and air pollution

Non-ferrous metals are pure metals, mostly without traces of iron. They are more costly than ferrous metals. They are light in weight, not magnetic, possess high conductivity. The important ones today are aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, titanium, zinc. Mined … Continue reading

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Renewable Technology: Scars of Battle

Some of the metals that are forecast to be in the highest demand in the future for electronics and technology are tin, lithium, cobalt, silver, nickel, gold, tungsten, vanadium, graphite, niobium, zinc, PGM (platinum group of metals) and salt (for … Continue reading

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Generic Drug Supply and Raw Materials Supply

In March 2021, Boris Johnson, Prime Minister, announced the UK was acquiring 10m doses from the Serum Institute of India, the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer and the key source of doses for Covax, a vaccine-sharing agreement on which poor and middle-income countries are relying. … Continue reading

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Concrete. Industrial Contamination

You cannot build a wind turbine without using concrete. Indeed, for each turbine, requires 900 tons of steel, 2500 tons of concrete and 45 tons of plastic. The above image is in a design manual. Concrete seems to have been … Continue reading

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Chromium. Industrial Contamination

To make a wind turbine, which is 78% steel, the Earth must yield up coal for coking plants to provide coke for furnaces to burn red hot to smelt iron ore. When the Earth yielded up iron ore, sulphuric acid … Continue reading

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Nickel. Industrial Contamination

I am trying to uncover what goes in to making a wind turbine. I now know they are made up of around 70% steel, and to make steel iron ore is a major component in the processing. Nickel is mixed … Continue reading

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Iron Ore. Industrial contamination

In the previous blog, I was finding out about the environmental price of making wind turbines. They are made up of around 70% steel. Steel is made from a process whose basic ingredient is iron ore. During mining, some harmful … Continue reading

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Making Steel to Meet Demand. Industrial Contamination

To make a Turbine, a modern renewable technology, we need steel (71-79% of total turbine mass); fiberglass, resin or plastic (11-16%); iron or cast iron (5- 17%); copper (1%); and aluminium (0-2%). So to reduce the use of coal to … Continue reading

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For Now I See Through a Glass Darkly

We humans have successfully reproduced until we have covered this Planet with our 7 billion plus persons, and despite many threats we still persist. However the dinosaurs lived millions of years and only died because of an extinction event; whereas … Continue reading

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