The Significance of Aurochs

During the Pliocene, the colder climate caused an extension of open grassland, which led to the evolution of large grazers, such as wild bovines. Bos acutifrons is an extinct species of cattle that has been suggested as an ancestor for the aurochs. These magnificent beasts are the focus of this blog.

Image of aurochs

Map of World Pliocene Epoch

Prior to the aurochs, we now know Ardipithecus, an early hominin genus existed 4.4 million years ago.

Image from

Then there was Australopithecus afarensis Lucy, discovered 75 km away from Aramis and who lived more than a million years later, still before the aurochs. Both these early hominin fossils were discovered in Ethiopia, East Africa.

One of the most fascinating pieces of evidence for hominin upright walking comes from the 3.5 million year old footprints preserved in volcanic ash at Laetoli, Tanzania. These footprints were left by a small group of Australopithecus, probably a mother, father and their tiny child.

These new hominids essentially resembled chimps, except for their upright walking. They were pioneers of a new way of living, striding out into a new kind of habitat, Africa’s predator rich savannah. It’s almost certain that one species of Australopithecus was our direct ancestor. For 3 million years, hominids were exclusive to Africa. 

The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the migration out of Africa of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis, the likely ancestor of both anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals, around 500,000 years ago. 

2 million years ago, the aurochs would have been traversing those parts of the global landscape where suitable climate and vegetation existed, at the same time as these nomadic early humans. They would cross into new territory over land bridges, later to be covered by rising sea levels. 

Cave paintings testify to their existence thousands of years later in France – created by skilled, intelligent nomadic hunters, around 30,000 years ago.

Cave paintings, France

But those who remained in Africa, or returned, travelled this vast continent, leaving only traces of their existence for archaeologists and others in the natural sciences, to discover thousands of years later.

“Humans have lived in Africa in one form or another for millions of years, much longer than anywhere else, meaning that many of the living megafauna such as African elephants, white rhinos and leopards actually evolved alongside us. Our long evolutionary association goes a long way to explaining why Africa is still home to giants, and also why the rest of the world is sadly biologically impoverished. ” See

The oldest aurochs remains have been dated to about 2 million years ago, in India. The Indian subspecies was the first to appear. 

Map of Pleistocene World, here showing the climate only 18000 years ago

During the Pleistocene, the aurochs migrated west into the Middle East (western Asia), as well as to the east. They reached Europe about 270,000 years ago. 

Image of megafauna in Britain

The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from Indian aurochs at the edge of the Thar Desert; the zebu is resistant to drought. Domestic yak, gayal, and Bali cattle do not descend from aurochs.

Image of Zebu

Zebu cattle, which originated in India, are sometimes known as a separate species, Bos indicus. However, current taxonomy recognizes zebu cattle as only a type of Bos taurus. Zebu cattle are characterized by a hump over the shoulder, drooping ears, and large dewlaps. They are well-adapted to arid, tropical climates and are especially resistant to the effects of heat, parasitic insects, and ticks. (Nowak, 1997)

Zebu cattle originated in Southwest Asia and their descendants were non-humped, they have evolved from three breeds of Indian cattle. The Guzerat, Nelore and the Gir had most influence over Zebu breeding. Zebu cattle are humped and belong to the Bos primigenius species of cattle. They were taken to Africa at an early date and within the last 100 years, have been exported to Brazil and the US.  See

The emergence of bison was understood by those who created the cave paintings. The part aurochs played is shown below.

The European bison (Bison bonasus), also known as wisent (/ˈviːzənt/ or /ˈwiːzənt/) or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison. It is one of two extant species of bison, alongside the American bison. Three subspecies existed in the recent past, but only one, the nominate subspecies (B. b. bonasus) survives today.

Cave Art images which depict the hybridisation (later described as Higgs bison)

Recent research by Authors: Alan CooperDirector, Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, University of Adelaide and  Julien SoubrierResearcher in paleogenomics, University of Adelaide
found that:

“The nuclear DNA showed our Higgs bison was a hybrid – a cross between a female Aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of modern cattle, and a male Steppe bison. We dated this hybridisation to more than 120,000 years ago.

Interestingly, this ancestry was the same for modern European bison, and even though the mitochondial DNA looked different (probably due to the recent population bottleneck), the Higgs bison was revealed as the ancestor of the wisent.”

Image genetic tree:

The first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) DNA sequence analysis of Bos primigenius from an archaeologically verified and exceptionally well preserved aurochs bone sample was published in 2010, followed by the publication in 2015 of the complete genome sequence of Bos primigenius using DNA isolated from a 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone. Further studies using the Bos primigenius whole genome sequence have identified candidate microRNA-regulated domestication genes. But in 2018 – see new research has found:

• DNA confirms that aurochs were much more abundantly available in Neolithic China.

• Many aurochs remains may have been mistakenly identified as Bison exiguous.

• All aurochs belong to Haplogroup C and no direct contribution to modern cattle.

• DNA identified one of the earliest Bos taurus remains in China.

Like most domestic animals, Bos taurus (domestic cow) is currently found throughout much of the world. The wild ancestors of cows were native to northern Africa, Europe, and southern Asia. (Nowak, 1997)

Domestic cows are social animals and live in groups called herds. Each herd is led by a dominant male who is the sole male to mate with the rest of the females. (Hinshaw, 1993; Huffman, January 1st, 2000; Walker, et al., 1975) see

Image of African megafauna herds today

Three wild subspecies of aurochs are recognised. Only the Eurasian subspecies survived until recent times.

In modern cattle, numerous breeds share characteristics of the aurochs, such as a dark colour in the bulls with a light eel stripe along the back (the cows being lighter), or a typical aurochs-like horn shape.

Five species of wild cattle have been domesticated approximately in the last 10500 years (Helmer et al. 2005)

The first domestic cattle was a form with long horns, a phenotype that is still common in several British, French, Mediterranean and African breeds.

This long horn type developed in Africa and is today associated with Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile. 

But during the late Pleistocene North Africa’s Sahara Desert flourished with lush landscapes, teemed with wildlife and millions of people lived there. This was a period of 5,000 years (roughly 4,000 to 9,000 years ago). But the climate changed again and was once more desert.

The Rock Art testifies to the daily observance of aurochs who roamed the landscape along with other bovines such as the huge prehistoric buffalo (Bubalus antiquus) and the prehistoric ox, both now long extinct. The aurochs was once common across North Africa and indeed across large parts of Asia and Europe. In Africa it seems to have disappeared around 4,000 years ago when the Sahara dried up, but in Asia it lingered on until the 1st millennium BCE.

Rock Art images

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Today’s Hunter Gatherers of Latin America and Africa: part 2

“The Yungas (Aymara yunka warm or temperate Andes or earth, Quechua language meaning yunka warm area on the slopes of the Andes) is a narrow band of forest along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains from Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina. It is a transitional zone between the Andean highlands and the eastern forests. Like the surrounding areas, the Yungas belong to the Neotropic ecozone; the climate is rainy, humid, and warm…….The Southern Andean Yungas begins in southern Bolivia and continues to the north of Argentina. It is a humid forest region between the drier Gran Chaco region to the east and the dry, high altitude Puna region to the west.” Wikipedia

Image of Yunga road

The Qulla (Quechuan for south, hispanicized and mixed spellings: Colla, Kolla) are an indigenous people of western Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina living in Jujuy and Salta Provinces. The 2004 Complementary Indigenous Survey reported 53,019 Qulla households living in Argentina. They moved freely between the borders of Argentina and Bolivia. Their lands are part of the yungas or high altitude forests at the edge of the Amazon

Another area is The Quebrada de Humahuaca, a narrow mountain valley located in the province of Jujuy in northwest Argentina, 1,649 km (1,025 mi) north of Buenos Aires (23°11′59″S 65°20′56″W). It is about 155 km (96 mi) long, oriented north-south, bordered by the Altiplano in the west and north, by the Sub-Andean hills in the east, and by the warm valleys (Valles Templados) in the south.

Image of The Quebrada de Humahuaca

The region has always been a crossroads for economic, social and cultural communication. It has been populated for at least 10,000 years, since the settlement of the first hunter-gatherers, which is evidenced by substantial prehistoric remains. It was a caravan road for the Inca Empire in the 15th century, then an important link between the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and the Viceroyalty of Peru, as well as a stage for many battles of the Spanish War of Independence.

Map of Viceroyalty era

In 1985, the Argentinian government officially recognized the indigenous peoples of that country by Law 23303. A cholera epidemic took a toll on the Qulla population in the late 20th century. In August 1996, many Qulla people occupied and blocked roads to their traditional lands but were violently stopped by the police. On 19 March 1997, the Qulla people finally regained legal possession of the Santiago Estate.

The Jujuy Commission of Indigenous Participation (CPI), won a historic victory when the provincial administrative disputes court ordered the state to grant land titles to 120 Kolla communities in the country’s Puna plateau region and in the Quebrada de Humahuaca, a long, narrow mountain valley.

The land where the Kolla indigenous people have lived for centuries is coveted by agribusiness concerns keen on extending the agricultural frontier beyond central Argentina to the northwestern part of the country.

Also interested in the land are investors who want to build upscale hotels, and mining companies eager to explore the Puna region and the Quebrada de Humahuaca, where there are deposits of gold, copper and mercury.

La Puna, an arid highland region shared by Argentina and Bolivia and located at 3,500 metres above sea level on average, is bordered on the east by the Quebrada de Humahuaca, which runs north to south. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) added the valley to its list of World Heritage Sites in 2003.

In the Puna region and the Quebrada de Humahuaca, which comprise 80 percent of the provincial territory, more than 20,000 indigenous families grow subsistence crops and raise sheep, goats and llamas. These animals can thrive in mountainous terrain.

The Chavín culture back thousands of years ago, domesticated camelids such as llamas. Camelids were used for pack animals, for fiber, and for meat. They produced ch’arki, or llama jerky. This product was commonly traded by camelid herders and was the main economic resource for the Chavín people. The Chavín people also successfully cultivated several crops, including potatoes, quinoa, and maize. They developed an irrigation system to assist the growth of these crops. This was when many parts of the Old World cultures had no knowledge of these crops, or of irrigation methods in such landscapes.

Image of Llamas

The tentacles of the Old World peoples reach for what lies beneath these lands. In the Puna Region, geologists have reported large copper, gold, silver, tin, lead and zinc deposits and ferrous minerals. (El Torno is in this region). Mining for these, as we well know, will destroy the ecosystem, particularly now with weak laws and powers to deepen debt in vulnerable countries.

Shame on us for what we do, for we KNOW what we do.

And in Cameroon, Africa…….

Map of Cameroon 

Wildlife of Cameroon
Image of hippos (see gallery

The wildlife of Cameroon is composed of its flora and fauna. Bordering Nigeria, it is considered one of the wettest parts of Africa and records Africa’s second highest concentration of biodiversity. To preserve its wildlife, Cameroon has more than 20 protected reserves comprising national parks, zoos, forest reserves and sanctuaries. The protected areas were first created in the northern region under the French colonial administration in 1932; the first two reserves established were Mozogo Gokoro Reserve and the Bénoué Reserve, which was followed by the Waza Reserve on 24 March 1934. The coverage of reserves was initially about 4 percent of the country’s area, rising to 12 percent; the administration proposes to cover 30 percent of the land area.

The rich wildlife consists of 8,260 recorded plant species including 156 endemic species, 409 species of mammals of which 14 are endemic, 690 species of birds which includes 8 endemic species, 250 species of reptiles, and 200 species of amphibians. The habitats of these species include the southern region comprising tropical lowland, coastline on the Gulf of Guinea. Mangroves forests, 270,000 hectares (670,000 acres) in size, are along the coast line. Montane forests and savannahs are in the northern region of the country. Important protected areas for these species are the Mbam Djerem National Park, Benoue National Park, Korup National Park, Takamanda National Park, and the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary. Cameroon is an important breeding area for marine and freshwater species such as crustaceans, mollusks, fish, and birds.”

Protecting this landmass is a GROWING process! But that is money in the bank for some. It is a triumph to preserve the biodiversity, but human hunter gatherers are likely to be excluded and instead replaced by Park Rangers. Safe places for tourists to visit National Parks is a big revenue earner; and one day, maybe, the greed of industrial investors will dip into this currently protected location.

More wealth is generated by using the remaining hectares for western mining and agriculture companies. The contrasting degradation for the indigenous folk is intensified by the government selling off hectares of land @ $1 a hectare in parts of Cameroon. The indigenous population are surplus to the needs of the wealth generators.

Image of Baka family

“The Baka people, known in the Congo as Bayaka (Bebayaka, Bebayaga, Bibaya), are an ethnic group inhabiting the southeastern rain forests of Cameroon, northern Republic of the Congo, northern Gabon, and southwestern Central African Republic. They are sometimes called a subgroup of the Twa, but the two peoples are not closely related. Likewise, the name “Baka” is sometimes mistakenly applied to other peoples of the area who, like the Baka and Twa, have been historically called pygmies, a term that is no longer considered respectful.”

Rather than “pygmy” these people prefer to be called by their tribal names: Aka, Baka, Efe, Mbuti, and Twa Sua

Map and images from
Image of Baka huts

“The Baka are one of the most culturally distinct people.This tribe live in and around the Maridi and in Yei River Counties, but also have their territory into the Democratic Republic of Congo — Also equatorial to the tropical rain-forest vegetation due to the fertile soil.  Some of their crops include, sorghum, cassava, telebun, simsim, beans, maize, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, palm oil, coffee, etc. The Baka keep fowl and very few goats and get almost all of the resources from the rain-forest………

* The Baka tribes in Southern Cameroon have been living in the forest for thousands of years. But now, with logging and mining companies rushing to cash in on the wealth, their ancient culture has come under threat.

*  The tribe is currently shrinking partly due from deforestation. It is a bit hard to find the population of some tribes because many of them live in remote place and they don’t have a census.”

The habitats of these people, so harmoniously living in this environment, is threatened by those of us who ‘demand and need’ what this area of rainforest yields. We are destroying this, once pristine, location. In so doing, the essential Earth diversity is being wrecked. Globally we see the same pattern- the ancient heritage of peaceful, friendly tribes is being robbed from them and their way of life ended. 

This is wrong headed in so many ways. These people have an alternative way of life to those of us forced to live in cities or in rural areas owned and restricted by landowners. Yet we do not show them respect because we envy their true freedom to be at one with nature, with no improvised laws except their spiritually defined ones. We can never go back to that time when our ancestors roamed the Earth as hunter gatherering nomads. But these people have never left Africa, nor been forced to live in alien places outside their beloved rainforest habitat. 

See for slash and burn results.

But now we threaten them, when we should be admiring them and leaving them untouched with no land grab of ‘ownership’ ever likely. That concept has wreaked such havoc on this exquisite Planet. The way forward for humanity is to step back from what little pristine areas of land, inhabited by diversity of wildlife but also tribes like the Baka, and acknowledge it is there but we are not worthy to step foot within it.

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Today’s Hunter Gatherers of Latin America and Africa: part 1

For thousands of years to the present day we can still witness the struggle of those whose indigenous ancestors passed to them the spirit of determination to preserve their landscape and not leave a carbon footprint, nor any kind of Earth long term harm, during their lifetime.

But they were besieged when the Old World tribes came across them. Since early explorers, missionaries first located them in their purity, the erosion of their rights began. The Old World tribal war machine had developed technologies which required funding, as wealth was required to feed the war machines. Wealth meant plundering the earth from that point on, and it meant those tribes who chose to protect the Earth, live harmoniously with it and revere it, were doomed to eternal battles with the Old World tribes.

The Old World tribes believed they were superior to those who they found living harmoniously in lands their explorers found and their nations of tribes robbed and contaminated.

We can now review the history of the Old World, and we don’t have much to be proud of, though we have written our history in mostly glowing terms. But the victors of war wrote that history and the treasures gained from war have mostly perished like the humans who thought they were gods in their lifetime.

There are some parts of the world which are currently still untouched by the contaminating finger of the Old World. There are no human markers on these areas – yet. 

The many tribes of Latin America are not all harnessed by the Old World destructive tendency. Some still prevail and I’m going to try and find out more about these magnificent descendants of Earth Protectors.

Here we look at the splendour of some of the locations in the north of Argentina. Beyond beautiful. 

Declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1984, Iguazu Falls is often revered as the world’s most spectacular waterfall. Situated on the border of the Brazilian state, Parana, and the Argentine province of Misiones, Iguazu Falls spans 1.7 miles (2.7km) in width, and features 275 individual waterfalls, with heights ranging from 196-270ft (60-82m). The name ‘Iguazu’ is loosely translated from the indigenous Guarani language as “big water”’ (Wikipedia extract)

The fact that the ancient Guarani language has survived to still describe the falls is so appropriate.

‘The Guarani language is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages……..It is spoken by communities in neighboring countries, including parts of northeastern Argentina, southeastern Bolivia and southwestern Brazil, and is a second official language of the Argentine province of Corrientes since 2004; it is also an official language of Mercosur. ……….Jesuit priest Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, who in 1639 published the first written grammar of Guarani in a book called Tesoro de la lengua guaraní (Treasure of the Guarani Language / The Guarani Language Thesaurus), described it as a language “so copious and elegant that it can compete with the most famous [of languages]”.(Wikipedia)

All over Argentina the indigenous folk are fighting overwhelming threats from industrial action – see

Image of Qom child


Horrible persecution of indigenous communities goes on – and the Old World mentality is influencing these events. Those of us who believe in the ‘oneness of humanity’ are horrified at the psychopathic attacks of human against human. Driven by insane greed by the current and transient elite who cling to power. The minds of those already pushed into poverty are twisted by nudge influencers to persuade them that if they want to survive they must destroy their fellow man.

We each have one life and wealth gained in monetary terms is ephemeral. We all know this Planet has a finite life and we humans are but a blip on its great historical surface. Humanity will die long before the Planet, but we are accelerating our own death through destruction of the very necessities we require to continue our existence.

And in Africa, the place of all human origin, we retrace our steps only to destroy our ancestral home and those who have stayed there to protect it.

Image of rainforest tribes in the Congo Basin. Learn more about Congo Basin tribes

A total number of about 900,000 Forest tribes were estimated living in the Central African Forests in 2016, about 60% of this number in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Due to their short stature, they have been labelled ‘pygmies’. They find themselves influenced by the farming activities which reach further into their ancestral homelands.

Our genetics are influenced by our habitat and lifestyle. This shows in our epigenome.

Research on the genomes of Pygmy hunter-gatherer populations and Bantu farmers in Central Africa, carried out by scientists from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS in cooperation with French and international teams, has shown for the first time that our habitat and lifestyle can have an impact on our epigenome – the entire system that controls the expression of our genes without affecting their sequence. In this study, the scientists have shown that moving from a forest habitat to an urban environment has a profound impact on the epigenetic patterns of the immune response. Conversely, the different historical lifestyles of these populations – sedentary farming or nomadic hunting and gathering – are likely to affect more lasting functions, such as those associated with development, by modulating their genetic control via natural selection.” This study published in the journal Nature Communications on November 30, 2015.

The minds of Bantu farmers, desperate for some of the wealth and power we of the Old World display, are influenced to frighten, even kill and despatch those who dwell peacefully in the rainforest.

Mining is an important land use activity in the forested region of the Congo basin, employing millions of people in the informal sector, and in the past few decades surpassing timber as the largest economic activity. Gold, diamonds, cobalt, copper and oil are major resources that are mined from the region; ……….. mining may be small scale, artisanal, and unregulated. Recently, mining groups have targeted coltan and cassiterite, rare minerals used in electronics such as mobile phones. Or it may be overwhelmingly large ……..

Image of a mine in DR Congo

Loans from unscrupulous companies to corrupt officials make poverty guaranteed for the mass population.

The landmass of Latin America once combined with Africa to form one great landmass. So symbolic. The land was One. We humans emerged and we were One. Now we destroy the miraculous land masses and ourselves.

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When we came home to our birthplace we thought we were superior beings

As referred to in some of my previous blogs, the supercontinent which has been named Gondwana existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Jurassic (about 180 million years ago).

The remnants of Gondwana make up about two thirds of today’s continental area, including South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Indian Subcontinent and Arabia.

In my previous blog the theme was Latin America focussing on Argentina and Chile. This blog will highlight the geological results of earth upheavals around 150 million years ago (the landmass which is now Latin America broke away around 180 million years ago).

As with the Atacama Desert of Chile, there is another famous, though not as large, desert in Southern Africa called the Kalahari.

Kalahari is derived from the Tswana word Kgala, meaning “the great thirst”, or Kgalagadi, meaning “a waterless place”; the Kalahari has vast areas covered by red sand without any permanent surface water.

Image of red sand of Kalahari

The San people (see ) are the indigenous nomads, just as the tribes of the Native Americans are in the Americas. They are the Kalahari Bushmen and women and their population remaining in South Africa is around 10,000.

Beautiful pictures of San at

San music ( “keep their oral traditions alive. They teach their traditions to their kids. Prayers are offered to the earth and the sky. And music is played. That’s right, music! Music is one of the most powerful mediums for expressing grief, resolving tensions, and keeping traditional lifeways and cultural knowledge alive and intact.”

Victor Grauer says “that certain Kalahari Bushmen groups have been in their homeland for thousands of years, just as the genetic evidence establishes their biological indigeneity, thus settling the Kalahari debate firmly on the side of the traditionalists.”

The ancestors of the San (and the entire human race) have been found fossilised around South Africa, many being discovered whilst European/American extensive mining activities across the African landscape took place. For example – see

Our ancient ancestors who left Africa and roamed the world, returned thousands of years later, believing themselves to be explorers, but, in truth, returning to the birthplace of their first ancestors. 

When modern humans started emerging from Africa and spreading throughout Eurasia, they found many places already occupied by older hominids such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. Inter breeding of older and younger hominids created very different DNA to those Africans who had remained within their vast continent. 

Those with changed DNA often considered the black (see Biko and the concept of ‘black’) skin inferior to their lighter skins, and their acquired technology and lifestyles imbued them with a perverse sense of superiority. They were ignorant about evolution and misunderstood their own identity. Human societies have been built around this grave misconception.

Sadly, as the Conquistadors brought death and destruction to the people and landmass of the Americas, so the Europeans (and later, Europeans who became Americans) wrought their misery on Africa and its peoples.

In South Africa the non-whites are still toiling in foreign owned industries with their rights lost to the whites when Mandela’s Charter was twisted to fit the foreign owners and not the majority African population. Even today, the SA government are forced to negotiate short of what is their right to own their own land and its industries in order to lift the population out of interminable years of suffering. (See

Laws to clean up the environment and make food and water safe from contamination are still not implemented. Compensation for the history of suffering under apartheid is nowhere to be seen.

One place which has proven hard for foreign investors to disrupt is the Kalahari Desert.

In the author suggests “The dunes stabilized some 10,000 to 20,000 years ago, for reasons climate scientists do not fully understand. Curiously, while the end of the last ice age some 10,000 years ago created many of the modern deserts, in the Kalahari it apparently moderated desert conditions. That massive climate shift made conditions much more harsh in the Sahara and in North America turned grasslands into deserts. But here, the same shift apparently converted a raw sand desert into a semiarid grassland. The explanation probably lies in planetwide shifts in rainfall patterns relating to the accompanying warming, sea level rise, and shifts in trade winds, ocean temperatures, and monsoons. Although the Kalahari remained in a desert-prone latitude hedged in by rain-blocking mountains, enough of an enhanced wet season delivered plenty of rain to greatly soften the desert conditions.”

In “the beauty and wild expanses of the Kalahari are hinted at as it stretches across now named countries of Namibia, Botswana and South Africa, for a full 360,000 square miles.” 

Across these lands the San would live their nomadic life, but now mostly contained in designated reserves, just as the Native Americans find themselves.

Lying southeast of the Okavango Delta and surrounded by the Kalahari Desert, is the Makgadikgadi, a dried lake, now a salt pan.

“Makgadikgadi is technically not a single pan, but many pans with sandy desert in between, the largest being the Sua (Sowa), Nwetwe and Nxai Pans. The largest individual pan is about 1,900 sq mi (4,921.0 km2). In comparison, Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is a single salt flat of 4,100 sq mi (10,619.0 km2), rarely has much water, and is generally claimed to be the world’s largest salt pan. A dry, salty, clay crust most of the year, the pans are seasonally covered with water and grass, and are then a refuge for birds and animals in this very arid part of the world. The climate is hot and dry, but with regular annual rains.”

Image of Makgadikgadi 

Victoria Falls share geology with Makgadikgadi and Kalahari.

Image of Mosi-oa-Tunya (Victoria Falls). Mosi-oa-Tunya lie between Zimbabwe and Zambia.

Contrast these natural beauties with scars and toxic waste from mining.

There is no doubt that mineral and mining companies have remained part of the biggest companies in South Africa. See


“Mining built South Africa, but the country’s mining industry is dying. Pale yellow mounds of gold mine waste dot Johannesburg—called eGoli in Zulu, meaning Place of Gold—attesting to the promise of fortune, which built and now threatens the country. The country’s former breadwinner is manifested in 6,000 derelict and ownerless gold, coal, diamond and other mines scattered across South Africa.”


“Mining production in South Africa shrank 1.5 percent from a year earlier in May 2019, the seventh consecutive month of decline and compared to market forecasts of a 2.5 percent slump. The largest negative contributors were: gold (-24.4 percent), diamonds (-30.7 percent), iron ore (-5.2 percent), and other metallic minerals (-9.8 percent). On the other hand, output growth was recorded for coal (8 percent), PGMs (6.8 percent), and manganese ore (29.3 percent). On a seasonally adjusted monthly basis, mining output increased by 3 percent, reversing a 1.8 percent fall in April. Mining Production in South Africa averaged -0.10 percent from 1981 until 2019, reaching an all time high of 23.20 percent in October of 2013 and a record low of -17.40 percent in March of 2016.”

Image  A miner emerging from a South African mine.

 Image of illegal gold being sought. 

“Small-scale gold mining operations sometimes use mercury to separate the gold from other materials. First, mercury is mixed with the materials containing gold. A mercury-gold amalgam then is formed because gold will dissolve in the mercury while other impurities will not. The mixture of gold and mercury is then heated to a temperature that will vaporize the mercury, leaving behind the gold. This process does not result in gold that is 100 percent pure, but it does eliminate the bulk of the impurities.

The problem with this method is the release of the mercury vapor into the environment. Even if equipment is used to catch the vapor, some still can get into the atmosphere. Mercury also can get into the soil and water if it still is contaminating other waste materials from the mining process that may be discarded.”

Image of gold mine

 Gold Fields said it will carry out the new project through the proposed unbundling of its subsidiary unit. (Image source: Natalia V/Flickr)

All mining trashes the landscape. 

Image of South African gold miner

“Mercury first was used to extract gold as many as 3,000 years ago. The process was prominent in the U.S. up until the 1960s, and the environmental impact on northern California is still felt today, according to

Health Effects

Mercury vapor negatively impacts the nervous, digestive, and immune systems, and the lungs and kidneys, and it can be fatal, according to the World Health Organization. These health effects can be felt from inhaling, ingesting, or even just physical contact with mercury. Common symptoms include tremors, trouble sleeping, memory loss, headaches, and loss of motor skills.

A common means of becoming infected is through eating contaminated fish.”

There has been a long history of tailing dam disasters, in South Africa and many places where similar mining activities take place around the world.

merriespruit dam

An aerial view of the dam after it had collapsed. Image from

This is the story of the Merriespruit Tailings Dam disaster (from

Merriespruit is a suburb of Virginia in South Africa, and on the 22nd of February 1994 it suffered a terrible flood because of failure to the Merriespuit tailings dam. There had been heavy rainfall that day, and the dam could not hold the extra water. The damage was immense, destroying eighty homes and killing seventeen people.

The dam itself was for the deposit of gold tailings. After gold was removed from local rock, the materials left over were transported to the dam in order to settle during the day. During the night, slurry was processed. In the middle of the dam, there was a drain to get rid of excess water.

The dam was built in the town in 1978, and only just over three hundred metres away from one of the houses in Merriespruit, which contained around two hundred and fifty houses in total. The year before the disaster, a leak was reported, so all deposition was cancelled in to that particular compartment. Extra water was filtered into another compartment. Before the dam failed, the conditions were considered unsafe and unfit. The freeboard (which contained the extra water) did not have the ability to hold half a metre of extra water. But still, nothing was done.

On the day of the disaster, there were reports of a flurry of water coming from the dam into the town. However, this was not the first time a stream had escaped. Another eye witness saw a leak coming from over the top wall of the dam. The mining contractors arrived to assess the dam that evening. They assessed the damage, and were about to warn the local town. However, they had no time. A loud crash was heard coming from the dam, and a wave broke free, heading towards the locals.

The flood that was released was a mixture of water, sediment and slime from the gold tailing process. The volume of water that flowed out was six hundred thousand metres squared. By the time it reached the first house in Merriespruit, the wall of silt and water was two and a half metres high. The liquids travelled four kilometres before losing its momentum, but the damage had been done.

In the aftermath of the floods, investigations were undertaken to assess what exactly had happened. The Minister of Justice and the State looked at all the evidence, which included weather reports, lab reports from the owners of the dam, satellite reports, and statements from eye witnesses. In the end, the fault was down to the contractor and the mine who were responsible for the upkeep. Eight people were fined for negligence. As it transpired, there had been a drop in the number of employees at the dam in recent years. Certain members of staff had been promoted into jobs that they had not been trained for.

There was naturally an outrage from the community about the disaster. In response, the law subsequently changed so that no tailings dams can now be built within a kilometre of housing.

Sources: Wikipedia, Tailings
South Africa

Big Hole image ( A diamond mine. The Big Hole, Open Mine, Kimberley Mine or Tim Kuilmine (Afrikaans: Groot Gat) is an open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the deepest hole excavated by hand, although this claim is disputed.

“Did you know that alluvial mining can cause serious deterioration and damage to our natural environment? You might have heard of the Big Hole (the Kimberley open mine) or the Jagersfontein Mine where some of the most famous diamonds in history had been unearthed.

Unknown to many people, these mines are the biggest man-made holes and had also left permanent scars on our planet’s surface which could be seen from space.” Yet for twenty years some want it registered as a World Heritage site!

We monetise our resources at our peril. We must try and prevent the Shock Doctrine (see Naomi Klein) economic philosophy from destroying what little is left. Perhaps a growing pressure to change international law and make ecocide a crime. Take a look at

Image of Ever Dear website page

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Arsenic contamination of groundwater, focussing mostly on Argentina and Chile

During the 130 million years that the South American continent was moving away from Africa, pushed by the continual movement of tectonic plate action, a number of extreme events occurred to the Earth’s crust. The landmass was ever changing, and today, is divided into countries; the indigenous early human population is now dominated by recent history of European human conquest. But human existence is but a blinking of an eye compared to the millions of years this landmass and life thereon, was evolving.

One striking feature is the huge Atacama Desert of western South America

Image of Atacama Desert and map of its location

This desert formed around 10 million years ago, whilst the landmass of South America was isolated. (It was 4 million years ago that South America became joined, over a millennia, to North America).

In May (2019) a team of scientists, from France’s Aix-Marseille Université, made the extraordinary discovery – comprising of 388 separate meteorites – in South America’s Atacama Desert. Some of these ancient meteorite collection date back two million years – the oldest-ever found on Earth.

Contrast these wonders of our planet to the early human experience of being the first explorers to find the Atacama Desert.

The Earth changes and evolves and is host to our presence, but we can only interact with it with survival in mind. Once satiated, feeling safe, we might use our brains to try and contemplate the making of this diverse and incredible universe.  

There is recent evidence (see that a comet set the Earth on fire, and one of the impact craters has been found at the southern tip of Chile. This was around 12,800 years ago, (Pleistocene) and is evidence the event created a severe climate shift. In this location the impact would have caused widespread destruction, characterized by biomass burning, megafaunal extinctions and global cooling.

The landscape of the lush vegetation was transformed by what is termed the Younger Dryas, causing advances of glaciers and drier conditions, over much of the temperate northern hemisphere. This event is believed to have caused widespread destruction and the demise of the Clovis culture in North America.

Image of climate change graph

Whilst this catastrophic interruption to life evolving in South America occurred, there were constant eruptions along the Volcanic Belt of the Andes, which continue today. 

Geological processes are a constant presence as the crust of the Earth continues to move and reshape itself. Yet humans and all life adapt and evolve as water, food and shelter are sought.

Number one priority! All living things must have free, clean, pure and fresh drinking water in order to survive. Those without it, and there are millions, suffer until those who have succeed in helping those who have not. (Example

Caleta Vitor, Chile


As tribes of hunter gatherers, of probably between twelve to twenty in number, slowly arrived on the Pacific Coast of South America, they ate molluscs and fish from the sea, but sought fresh water by moving inland, or collecting rainwater, perhaps in empty large shells. It has been postulated that the fish diet probably was crucial to brain development and helped them solve problems of survival more effectively.

But those who arrived at what is now known as Caleta Vitor, on the Pacific coast of northern Chile, drank from what appeared to be clean, pure water. They were not to know it carried a dangerous toxin which continues to form in groundwater today. Arsenic.

There is evidence that people of numerous pre-Columbian civilizations in northern Chile suffered from chronic arsenic poisoning between 500 and 1450 AD, through consumption of contaminated water. 

Now a new study has found evidence of arsenic poisoning across all major cultural periods in the region, spanning several millennia. The researchers, James Swift of the Australian National University and colleagues from several other institutions in Australia and Chile, performed plasma mass spectrometry trace element analysis of human bone and tooth samples. The samples came from 21 burials covering the period from 3867 to 474 BP (before present) excavated at the site of Caleta Vitor on the Pacific coast of northern Chile.(see

These would be hunter gatherers, not communities forming civilisations. They buried their dead, no doubt valuing the person who had suffered in their midst for some time before their death. This habit has led to these remains being uncovered by the researchers. Coastal and inland Chilean Diaguitas (see later about the Diaguitas tribes) traded in this area as evidenced by the archaeological findings of mollusc shells in the upper course of Andean valleys. These were most likely the ancient people who were the wandering, indigenous tribes, seeking sustenance along the Pacific coast in what we now think of as Chile. They would find the cold Atacama Desert, a barren wilderness, unsuitable for a human centre for settlement. Even the Incas penetrated into the northern portion of what is now Chile but were never able to develop the area for the same reasons of barrenness.

These early explorers sought fresh drinking water inland, as a priority. In the case of those who died of arsenic poising, what they found looked safe to drink and no one died within a short time of drinking it. They had no idea it was poisonous, contaminated with arsenic. Those people grew ill very slowly, so they could not work out what was killing them in such a painful and cruel way. Animals with shorter lifespans would not be affected, therefore no carcasses of animals lay by water contaminated with arsenic.

The Diaguitas and Catamarca 

Images of Catamar

Vista_aérea_de_San_Fernando_del_Valle_de_Catamarca,_Argentina.jpgjlazarte Catedral_Basílica_Nuestra_Señora_del_Valle,_Catamarca.jpg: Agus ferrocarril Archivo_y_MH_Catamarca.jpg: Claudio Elias El_Jumeal.jpg: Stefan sauzuk Templo_de_San_Francisco,_Catamarca.jpg: 

There were no borders when humans first roamed South America, so early humans explored this landmass, forming numerous and often warring tribes, but coming together only to face the threat of early civilisations such as the Incas or the Spanish Conquistadors.

Before the arrival of the Spanish conquest, most of today’s Catamarca was inhabited by the Diaguitas indigenous people, including the fierce Calchaquí tribe.

The indigenous tribal peoples have lived in the lush river canyons of this region for over 12,000 years. These were the Pulares who lived in the Chicoana region, the Jamalaos in Sumalao, the Luracataos and Colomes in the Tacuil region, the Hualfin in Angastaco and Tucumanahao. 

To the south of San Carlos were the Quire-Quire, the Animana, the Chuschagasta, the Cafayate, the Tolombon and the Colalao. In the Yocavil Valley lived the Amaicha, Quilmes, Yocaviles and the Caspinchango. To the south were the settlements of the Abaucanes in Andalgala and Hualfin. Other tribes are the Tinogasta, Palcipas, Pom’an, Capayan and Fiambala all of which contributed to the enrichment of the ethnic spectrum in this region. 

The ‘Diaguita’, combined by the Spanish invaders under this umbrella name, included many tribes that had united years earlier to defend themselves against the intrusion of the Incas from the North. Despite hundreds of years of invasion and colonization by first the Inca and then the Spanish, the descendants of these original people still live in their ancestral homeland……….Of special importance to the Calchaquí was their hairstyle. They wore it long, and it was considered despicable to cut a person’s hair. According to the writings of Quiroga in 1903, one of the most insulting punishments inflicted by the Spaniards was to shave off the Indians´ hair. Pincers made of copper lead us to believe that the Diaguita plucked their hair with an eye to fashion. They decorated their straight, black hair with headbands, feathers, plaits, and hair needles made from cactus wood, horn, and silver. In early times even an occasional deformed skull was incorporated into a hairstyle.

Valuable jewelry was made in various zoomorphic shapes from precious metals. Silver and gold plates were fashioned into pectorals, bracelets, discs for the forehead and sewn into clothing. Pins to close tupus had filigree decorations. Necklaces and earrings were made of both precious and semi precious stones.”


Arsenic found in drinking water worldwide

Today, arsenic found in drinking water is a worldwide problem, and not least in the Americas.
The lands once inhabited by indigenous tribes are now populated by people who have formed rural farming communities; people who have built cities and industrialised the landscape; people who are very poor and struggle with day to day poverty; and a smaller percentage who live a comfortable life. Every single person requires water free from toxins, but this is not straightforward for those who have no choice but to live in contaminated regions.

There is now a growing body of knowledge of how arsenic gets into groundwater and solutions are being tested to provide populations with arsenic free drinking water. Each location requires varying solutions, with no formulaic answer which might solve the worldwide cases”

The World Health Organization (WHO) ranks arsenic as one of 10 most concerning chemicals from a public health standpoint. Prolonged exposure to arsenic, particularly in drinking water and food crops that require irrigation, increases the risk of cardiovascular, dermatological, and neurological diseases, as well as various forms of cancer. At least 4 million residents of Argentina, Chile, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Peru and Bolivia are exposed to dangerous concentrations of it. Bangladesh is the worst affected country in the world by arsenic contamination. More than 60% of the groundwater available in Bangladesh is highly contaminated with arsenic. About 50-77 million of the total population of about 164 million is under extreme threat. 

Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater. In Bangladesh, it is a high-profile problem due to the use of deep tubewells for water supply in the Ganges Delta, causing serious arsenic poisoning to large numbers of people. Additionally, mining in India can produce waste which gets washed into Bangladesh in the monsoon season, and that waste contains a range of toxins.

A 2007 study found that over 137 million people in more than 70 countries are probably affected by arsenic poisoning of drinking water. The problem became a serious health concern after mass poisoning of water in Bangladesh. Arsenic contamination of ground water is found in many countries throughout the world, including the US.
Image of Bangladeshi, poisoned by local water arsenic contamination. These communities cannot find locally safe drinking water.

Approximately 20 major incidents of groundwater floarsenic contamination have been reported. Of these, four major incidents occurred in Asia, in Thailand, Taiwan, and Mainland China. Locations of potentially hazardous wells have been mapped in China.

Individuals with chronic exposure to arsenic are at higher risk of death at younger age because arsenic is such a toxic agent that affects all systems of human body,” says Dr Muhammad Yunus, emeritus scientist and senior author of a study published in Environment International based on a 13-year long observation on indications of higher mortality risk rate of young adults.

Young adults who passed away due to cancers, cerebro-vascular, cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases – were found to have a higher exposure to arsenic-laced water. See

Regardless of localized inputs of arsenic from human activities, much of the contamination of groundwater by arsenic was shown to arise from geogenic sources which affected groundwater in many countries. Arsenic is a natural component of the earth’s crust and is widely distributed throughout the environment. On land, rocks which are exposed to certain geological and geothermal activities can contribute to major sources of arsenic deposits if they are rich in minerals containing arsenic like Realgar (As4S4), Arsenopyrite (FeAsS), Anargite (Cu3AsS4) and Orpiment. The major cause of contamination of arsenic in groundwater is the mobilization of natural arsenic on sediments. If the minerals are subjected to the right chemical conditions under the ground, the arsenic content in them can dissolve in the surrounding groundwater accumulation. The main anthropogenic sources for contamination of groundwater with arsenic are mining, burning of fossil fuels, use of arsenical fungicides, herbicides and insecticides in agriculture and wood preservatives. The degree of groundwater arsenic contamination by anthropogenic sources is much less compared to the natural sources; however, their contribution cannot be neglected. In the United States, the arsenic contents have been reported to be sourcing from geogenic sources like up-flow of geothermal water, dissolution of or desorption from iron oxide, and dissolution of sulphide minerals; and also, from anthropogenic sources such as copper smelting. 

The source of arsenic in India is geogenic as well as anthropogenic. Arsenic is present in the alluvial sediments of the Delta; and the chemical industries along with mining contribute to the anthropogenic causes of arsenic in groundwater. The presence of arsenic in groundwater exceeding the standard limits set by the government and its toxicology pose serious health concerns. The severity of the problem is alarmingly high. Its long-term exposures are fatal. Arsenic poisoning immediately causes vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea which might be followed by muscle cramping, numbness and at times death. 

The long-term exposures can be indicated by pigmentations on skin, hyperkeratosis and skin lesions which might prove to be early signs of skin cancer. Along with skin cancer, there may be developmental effects, diabetes, pulmonary and cardiovascular disease.”

Image of Worldwide Map locations of arsenic poisoned water, from above report

Argentina, South America

Natural geological factors are to blame for most arsenic contamination in Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Nicaragua, but human activities also lead to huge arsenic contamination problems. Mining and smelting are responsible for much of the problem in Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. In Brazil, contributing to the problem are electrolytic processes in metal production. A smaller but significant source is arsenic pesticide, used mainly in Mexico. Generally, though, most arsenic in Latin American surface water and groundwater comes from minerals produced by Andes Mountains Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism.

Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a large range of volcano-tectonic settings;  including rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range on crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amounts of crustal assimilations. (

Image of Andean Volcanic Belt

Volcanic activity can release large amounts of arsenic to the environment.

Every year, natural sources contribute about 1/3 of the total annual release of arsenic to the atmosphere. Most of this comes from volcanoes.

Groundwater in contact with rocks that are high in arsenic MAY contain high concentrations of arsenic – this is a natural source of arsenic. Many of the world’s most troublesome problem spots are due to naturally high in arsenic in groundwater.

Argentina, particularly the northern and central areas, such as the province of La Pampa, have high concentrations of arsenic. In large parts of rural Argentina people depend on groundwater whose As content exceeds the Argentine drinking water standards (0.05 mg l−1). 

In La Pampa, arsenic levels vary widely by locality. Studies have observed levels of <4 µg/L to 5,300 µg/L in the region. Some urban areas use reverse osmosis treatment, but it’s impractical in rural areas and cattle lands. A 2012 study of arsenic contamination effects in the Rioja plain, Pampa hills, and Chaco-Pampa plain found an increased risk of colon cancer in women, and lung and bladder cancers in both sexes.

Anthropocene Impact through mining processes

Examples of intensive mining in Latin America show:

In Bolivia, bordering with Argentina and Chile
It’s destroying lives

In Bolivia, the average miner in the tin mines of Potosí will live only 35 to 40 years – a life more than 25 years shorter than the average Bolivian person. At least 300,000 children as young as 5 work in Columbian mines.

The children suffer

Almost all children in the Peruvian town of La Oroya have dangerously high levels of lead, arsenic and other toxins in their blood. More than 40% of the children under 5 have mental deficiencies. The cause is the town’s heavy pollution from lead, zinc and copper mining. The owners were prosecuted and fined. This complex is to be under new ownership

Images Oroya complex 

The mining of raw materials for electronic products—including silicon, aluminum, copper, lead, and gold—contributes to increased respiratory problems for workers, such as silicosis, tuberculosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer. Gold mines are the leading source of mercury air pollution in the U.S.

Anxiety about the destruction caused by mining in mountainous landscapes is illustrated in this blog:;
Images from above blog

Agus ferrocarril derivative work: Bleff • CC BY-SA 3.0

Located in an arid and semi-arid climate zone, the scarce water resources determine the human settlement pattern. Agricultural activities are concentrated in the pockets and valleys between the mountains. In the east the population is concentrated around a number of water courses, water being distributed by canals and irrigation ditches.

The constant threat from mining activities looms over these oases in the desert.

Seven years ago this was the huge list of mining operations in Argentina


In Chile, high levels of volcanic arsenic are affecting rural water supplies and agriculture through contaminated soils and irrigation water. As Ioanna Kakoulli, an archaeological scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, explained that in Chile, sediments are also rich in arsenic because of copper-mining activities in the highlands. It is too easy to explain arsenic levels through natural causes.

Compounding the misery caused by already high levels of natural toxic levels of arsenic, copper mining is an additional source of arsenic contamination.(

Antofagasta has a reputation of being anti-union, anti-worker and anti-environment and has exhibited such behaviors wherever they have decided to exploit low-grade copper sulfide ore anywhere in the world. (See

……..The International Copper Study Group’s (ICSG), most recent projections see world mine production increasing 4.2% to 19.5Mt in 2016 with the market moving into a deficit of around 130,000t as demand growth outpaces production growth, after a surplus of 41,000t in 2015……….Latin America still leads the world in copper mine production. Latin America’s share of global mined copper output as a region grew from 19% in 1960 to over 40% in 2014, and this share will continue to expand as the project portfolio evolves. (

There used to be villages in the Atacama Desert, but now they are preserved as museum pieces for tourists who have come to see the biggest copper mining open pit in the world. (

Chuquicamata (/tʃuːkiːkəˈmɑːtə/ choo-kee-kə-MAH-tə), or “Chuqui” as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the largest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside Calama at 2,850 m (9,350 ft) above sea level, 215 km (134 mi) northeast of Antofagasta and 1,240 km (770 mi) north of the capital, Santiago.

Hector Pumarino Soto suggests that “Calama” stems from the Kunza word “Ckara-ama,” which means “town in the middle of the water”. Until the middle of the 20th century, the urban site of Calama and the surrounding oasis were flanked by the River Loa on two sides, and the fertile plain and swamps on the other sides, giving the location the appearance of an island in the middle of the desert surrounded completely by water. Its banks have been inhabited from early times. Evidence of this is the notable number of geoglyphs, petroglyphs and pictographs that are found along its course and in its upper basin.

Northern Chile’s rivers are the main causes of arsenic contamination (Mukherjee et al 2006). The region is drained by the Rio Loa river which has an arsenic concentration of 1400 μg L−1 and its tributaries have about 1000 μg L−1 (Mukherjee et al 2009).

Chuqui -as workers call Codelco’s flagship mine- together with the nearby Radomiro Tomic mine produced 653,000 tonnes of the company’s total 1.8 million tonnes of output last year.(see

At present, the state-owned miner is seeking to transform the 100-year-old open-pit deposit at Chuquicamata into an underground mine by 2020, when mining at the open-pit ends.

In 2013 David Lowell, a legendary octogenarian explorer credited with finding the Escondida copper deposit, among others, hoped he could find the answer to one of the world’s greatest exploration mysteries: finding lost – or believed to be lost – Chuquicamata copper ore.

The Chuqui mystery is this: a fault, called the West Fault, cuts through the Chuqui ore body and appears to have moved a chunk – how much is not clear – of Chuqui ore elsewhere, where or exactly how far is uncertain. But most guesses, those made in a so far fruitless search for lost Chuqui ore, have put it somewhere about 15 to 20 kilometres to the south on a property that is known as the Ricardo project.

It’s a roughly 16,000 hectare property on the edge of the Chilean town of Calama. The pursuit for this wealth creating and arsenic inflicting ore never seems to end. Will Calama become another ghost town?

Image of Geothermal Vents, Calama

In geothermal reservoirs that are deep seated, leaching helps the release of arsenic which are brought to sub-surface level by the uprising activity of the geothermal fluids. At high temperatures, arsenic occurs in Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) or simply arsenic bearing pyrite. ​Bundschuh​ These minerals dissolved in geothermal fluids, after reaching the subsurface zone, get adsorbed to the sediments when in excess. Later on these sediments work as source for arsenic when the concentration of iron decreases in the surrounding waters. (Cornett et al 1992, Bright et al. 1994) When these sediments weather, they release bivalent Fe in an oxidising environment, which sorbs the co-weathered arsenic. The iron oxyhydroxide rocks adsorb arsenic released from these sediments. Redox processes in these rocks trigger the reductive dissolution of iron oxides into the surrounding aqueous phases along with a substantial amount of arsenic through different biogeochemical processes ​(​Singh 2006​). 

Microbes also promote arsenic concentration in fluids by oxidation or reduction to produce As (V) and As(III) respectively. Low pH promotes the concentration of the aqueous species H2AsO4- under oxidising conditions and high pH will promote HAsO42- under the same conditions. Under reducing conditions, arsenite dominates in the form H3AsO30 (Kinniburgh et al 2003).”

An architect group say

Calama PLUS is a public-private initiative aimed to compensate the Calama inhabitants, in response to their massive and constant complaints about the negative environmental impact of mining activity on the city. It is intended to improve, on one hand, its urban quality, and on the other, to preserve and expand its condition of oasis. With a participatory design process, the master plan includes 23 projects to improve the city ranging from urban parks, public spaces and schools to proposals on how to use more efficiently scarce water resources.

Our planet cannot take much more plundering. We must move back from expansion and become agnostic to growth of corporate outputs, worldwide. All corporate mining activity must utilise cutting edge technology that will not negatively impact the water, fishes, trees and land -as all of them are interrelated. Failing that, they should be prosecuted for the crime of ecocide which may soon become an internationally declared law.

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Wildlife of Africa and the links to wildlife of South America

When South America split from Africa (see previous blog) it became, for much of the past 130 million years, an island continent, and on it organisms evolved in “splendid isolation.” Mammals, especially, evolved into forms not seen anywhere else.

The land mass of Africa is the only place still teeming with a diverse mixture of megafauna today, being the likely birthing place of all life forms, the centrepiece of Gondwana.

Whilst megafauna may have become extinct in South America, it remains one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. It is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth’s species. It is vital these are now protected from corporate activities which have plundered this continent for too long, committing ecocide crimes to satisfy our western greed. For example, the tapir is hunted and its habitat is being destroyed – see

When Gondwana broke into other land masses which moved away from the continent of Africa, they moved into areas within the oceans which were often beset by extreme climate change. For example, “during the the last Ice Age, Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea formed a single landmass, called Sahul. It was a strange and often hostile place populated by a bizarre cast of giant animals” – see ‘Climate change helped kill off super-sized Ice Age animals in Australia’, David Salisbury Jan. 26, 2017) 

The ancestors of the American Smilodon and scimitar cat lived in Africa as the now extinct wolf sized, blade-toothed dogs and sabre-toothed cats such as Megantereon and Homotherium.

Image of Megantereon
Megantereon was a genus of prehistoric machairodontine saber-toothed cat that lived in North America, Eurasia, and Africa. It may have been the ancestor of Smilodon.

At the end of the Pliocene the Meganteron evolved into the larger Smilodon in North America, while it survived in the Old World until the middle Pleistocene. The youngest remains of Megantereon from east Africa are about 1.5 million years old. In southern Africa, the genus is recorded from Elandsfontein, a site dated to around 700,000-400,000 years old. Remains from Untermaßfeld show that Megantereon lived until 900,000 years ago in Europe. In Asia,it may have survived until 500,000 years ago, as it is recorded together with Homo erectus at the famous site of Zhoukoudian in China. The only full skeleton was found in Senéze, France.

Image of Smilodon

Indeed the Smilodon roamed the extent of South America, a fearsome creature.  

Homotherium (also known as the scimitar-toothed cat or scimitar cat) is an extinct genus of machairodontine saber-toothed cats, often termed scimitar-toothed cats, that inhabited North America, South America, Eurasia, and Africa during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs (4 mya – 12,000 years ago), existing for approximately 4 million years.

Image of Homotherium 

H. serum size comparison Dantheman9758 at English Wikipedia (Original text: Dantheman9758 (talk)) • CC BY 3.0

In Latin America, during the Early Pliocene through the end of the Pleistocene, there existed a giant ground sloth, a Megathereum Americanum. Megatherium was first discovered in 1788 on the bank of the Luján River in Argentina, the holotype specimen was then shipped to Spain the following year wherein it caught the attention of the esteemed paleontologist Georges Cuvier, Cuvier was the first to determine that Megatherium was a sloth.

Due to growing aridity it could no longer survive in limited habitat. As humans evolved in the same area, they would find this great beast vulnerable and easier to hunt and kill. So it became extinct.

The sloths which now exist are also in peril and some attempts are being made to save them.

Only a few other land mammals equaled or exceeded Megatherium in size, such as large proboscideans (e.g., elephants) and the giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium. 

The elephants of Africa are well known to us, though difficult to protect from greedy ivory hunters in these days of organised wildlife crime. But elephants once roamed the Americas.

American mastodon  image

Gomphoetheres  were widespread in North America during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, 12–1.6 million years ago. Some lived in parts of Eurasia, Beringia, and in South America following the Great American Interchange.

Certainly, the Gomphotheres, a diverse group of elephant-like animals (proboscideans) were not only widespread in North America during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, with some living in Eurasia and South America, they were slowly replaced by modern elephants, but the last South American species did not finally become extinct until possibly as recently as 400 A.D. In the toxonomy of the Gomphotherium, the complete “parentage” was finally decided in 1998 from Domain to Family. According to J. L. Prado, M. T. Alberdi, b. Azanza, B. Sanchex, and D. Frassinetti in their 2005 work on elephants in South America, the Gomphothere remains are common at South American Paleo-indian sites. One example is the early human settlement at Monte Verde, in Chile. 

Consequently, elephants were widely distributed all over South America, with at least one variety existing to about the time of the annihilation of the Nephites, 400 A.D.”


Diagram from the above blog:

From Wikipedia:

“Gomphothere remains are common at South American Paleo-indian sites. Examples include the early human settlement at Monte Verde, Chile, dating to approximately 14,000 years ago, and the Altiplano Cundiboyacense (Tibitó, 11,740 BP) and the Valle del Magdalena of Colombia. In 2011, remains dating between 10,600 and 11,600 years ago were also found in the El Fin del Mundo(End of the World) site in Sonora, Mexico’s Clovis location – the first time such an association was found in a northern part of the continent where gomphotheres had been thought to have gone extinct 30,000 years ago. In July 2014, it was announced that the “position and proximity of Clovis weapon fragments relative to the gomphothere bones at the site suggest that humans did in fact kill the two animals there. Of the seven Clovis points found at the site, four were in place among the bones, including one with bone and teeth fragments above and below. The other three points had clearly eroded away from the bone bed and were found scattered nearby.”

Today the magnificent elephant of Africa die under attack from war weapons mounted on helicopters in a mass slaughter.

Read :

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Southern Gondwana and the formation of South America and South Africa

As Gondwana was the parent landmass of South America, I am going to spend a while studying the geology in this blog, then the life forms, in further blogs, which existed until the present day in South Africa and on the separated landmass of South America.

This is a brief description of the formation and ongoing earth contortions which continue to create and diminish the land on which life exists. 

Much of what I’ve picked out is from Wikipedia, but the work of geologists is fascinating and I’m only dipping into what is available to illustrate the landmass similarities between South America and South Africa when what we now call South America split from the supercontinent of Gondwana (named by Austrian scientist Eduard Suess, after the Gondwana region of central India which is taken from the Sanskrit for “forest of the Gonds”).

The forming of Patagonia, Chile, Argentina

The rocks comprising Patagonia occurred along the southwestern margin of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. During a period of continental rifting in the Cambrian period, a portion of Patagonia was separated from Gondwana, and the resulting passive margin that formed was a site of extensive sedimentation throughout the early-middle Paleozoic era. This geologic period of time that lasted from 542 to 488 million years ago was the first period of the Paleozoic era, and is distinguished from the preceding Precambrian by a spectacular increase in the number of living organisms.

Subduction-related igneous rocks from beneath the North Patagonian Massif have been dated at 320–330 million years old, indicating that the subduction process initiated in the early Carboniferous. This was relatively short lived (lasting about 20 million years), and initial contact of the two landmasses occurred in the mid-Carboniferous, with broader collision during the early Permian. In the Devonian an island arc named Chaitenia accreted to Patagonia in what is now south-central Chile.

Dinosaurs on Gondwana

Dinosaurs first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They would have developed on many Landmasses deriving from Gondwana.

South Africa formation

It took until about 180 million years ago, for a mantle plume under southern Gondwana caused bulging of the continental crust in the area that would later become southern Africa. Within 10 – 20 million years rift valleys formed on either side of the central bulge, which became flooded to become the proto-Atlantic and proto-Indian Oceans. The stepped steep walls of these rift valleys formed escarpments that surrounded the newly formed Southern African subcontinent.

The Great Escarpment is a major topographical feature in Africa that consists of steep slopes from the high central Southern African plateau downward in the direction of the oceans that surround Southern Africa on three sides. While it lies predominantly within the borders of South Africa, in the east it extends northwards to form the border between Mozambique and Zimbabwe, continuing on beyond the Zambezi River valley to form the Muchinga Escarpment in eastern Zambia. In the west, it continues northwards into Namibia and Angola.

Different names are applied to different stretches of the Great Escarpment, the most well-known section being the Drakensberg. The Schwarzrand and edge of the Khomas Highland in Namibia, as well as the Serra da Chela in Angola, are also well-known names.

The San and the Khoikhoi people were the original inhabitants of South Africa, arising out of the Cradle of Humankind.

The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about 50 km (31 mi) northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, in the Gauteng province. Declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1999, the site currently occupies 47,000 hectares (180 sq mi) and contains a complex of limestone caves. The registered name of the site in the list of World Heritage sites is Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa.

Nearby the site, but not in the site, the Rising Star Cave system contains the Dinaledi Chamber (chamber of stars), in which were discovered fifteen fossil skeletons of an extinct species of hominin, provisionally named Homo naledi.

The San people are also known as Bushmen, while the Khoikhoi are often referred to as Hottentots. Even though their cultures differ significantly, together they are called the Khoisan people because of their biological similarities. They are almost extinct today.

In 1486 Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias and his crew were the first Europeans to sail around the southern point of the continent of Africa. It was often stormy, but when calm sailors could see the impressive Table Mountain. The area he sailed around he called The Cape of Good Hope (“Cabo de Boa Esperanca”).

Image of Table Mountain

Quote from

“……shifts in the earth’s plates created many fold mountains – including the Hottentot-Holland range in the Cape Winelands. But the hard granite base of Table Mountain resisted folding and deflected the forces downwards. This produced uplift in a geological process known as istotacy, or ’emerging relief’ and Table Mountain began to rise above sea level. This process probably started about 280 million years ago, and continues to the present day, making Table Mountain one of the oldest mountains in the world (it is six times older than the Himalayas).

As Table Mountain rises, so it is constantly eroded by the onslaught of high winds, rain and fire. The sandstone superstructure is protected from the rough seas by it’s granite base (clearly visible along the coastline at Camps Bay and beyond Simon’s Town). But its coarse sandstone heights have been worn by the other elements into strange and fantastic shapes, giving the mountain its extraordinary gnarled and craggy appearance. The sheer front face, however, was caused by the action of waves – it is a giant cliff face. ”

South America and tectonic plate movement

The Antarctic Plate started to subduct beneath South America 14 million years ago in the Miocene epoch. At first it subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction lay near the Strait of Magellan. As the southern part of the Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic Plate began to subduct beneath Patagonia so that the Chile Triple Junction lies at present offshore Taitao Peninsula at 46°15′ S.

Chile Triple Junction

Image from:

Spanish explorers and Jesuits that sailed south from Chiloé Archipelago in the 17th and 18th centuries regularly avoided rounding Taitao Peninsula entering instead the Gulf of Penas after a brief land crossing at the isthmus of Ofqui. While atempting to pass Gulf of Penas in 1741 a storm caught HMS Wager making it wreck in Wager Island, Guayaneco Archipelago. One of the survivors, John Byron, ( Vice-Admiral John Byron (8 November 1723 – 10 April 1786) was a British Royal Navy officer and politician. He was known as Foulweather Jack because of his frequent encounters with bad weather at sea).  He and other survivors were led into the Spanish settlements of Chiloé Archipelago by a native Chono trough Presidente Ríos Lake. As result of its difficult access and isolation the peninsula is largely unexplored.

Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego (/tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfweɪɡoʊ/, Spanish: [ˈtjera ðel ˈfweɣo]; Spanish for “Land of Fire”) is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of the main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48,100 km2 (18,572 sq mi), and a group of many islands, including Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands. Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the latter controlling the eastern half of the main island and the former the western half plus the islands south of Beagle Channel. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is at about latitude 55 S.

The earliest known human settlement in Tierra del Fuego dates to around 8,000 BCE.

Europeans first explored the islands during Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition of 1520; Tierra del Fuego and similar namings stem from sightings of the many bonfires that the natives built. 

Settlement by those of European descent and the great displacement of the native populations did not begin until the second half of the 19th century, at the height of the Patagonian sheep farming boom and of the local gold rush. 

Today, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism, manufacturing, and Antarctic logistics are important in the south.

Cape Horn was discovered and first rounded in 1616 by the Dutchman Willem Schouten, who named Kaap Hoorn after the city of Hoorn in the Netherlands. For decades, Cape Horn was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world. The waters around Cape Horn are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs; these dangers have made it notorious as a sailors’ graveyard.

Image of Cape Horn

It is our human interaction with Landmasses which has created the diversity of human life. It is as nothing compared to the diversity of all life on Earth since time began. We are only just beginning to understand something of this phenomenal world within the vast universe. We must continue to respect all life as we explore and scrape the surface of our understanding. It is wonderful to me that humans have created the vast wealth of knowledge made available to us via the Internet. Despite fake news abounding on daily events, there are still areas of knowledge we can pursue to fill us with exhilation and make us glad to be alive!

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